Glossary of Terms

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DAB: To dress the face of a stone by picking with a pointed tool

DACITE: Fine-grained extrusive (volcanic) rock, intermediate in color and composition between basalt and rhyolite.

DADO: Stone treatment on interior walls which does not extend to the ceiling, often ornamented.

DAMP COURSE: A course or layer of impervious material that prevents vertical penetration of water by capillary action.

DAMPPROOFING: Prevention of moisture penetration due to capillary action by the addition of one or more coatings of a compound that is impervious to water.

DAMPPROOFING COURSE: A horizontal or vertical course or layer, usually at least six inches above the ground level, that prevents the capillary entrance of moisture from the ground or a lower course.

DATUM: A horizontal plane elevation used as a reference plane.

DEADMAN: Buried cross timbers, or a bulk of concrete or stone, to which are attached guy pieces of wood, or wire cable, to anchor an upright post or derrick nearby.

DEFLECTION: The amount by which a horizontal member bends at the center under stress.

DELAMINATION: A failure in a laminating assembly characterized by the separation or loss of adhesion between plies, such as in built-up roofing or glue-laminated timber.

DENTIL: Block projections on an entablature.

DENTIL COURSE: Mold course immediately below the cornice, having on one of its members, small uniformly spaced blocks, referred to as dentils.

DEPTH OF GLOSS: The optical phenomenon of relative depth perceived when viewing reflective surfaces.

DERRICK: A hoisting device, usually made up of a guyed mast, a boom hinged to it, and pulley ropes.

DESIGN: To bring into being a mental concept.

DETAIL: A graphic representation of a part, usually at a larger scale than the design to which it belongs.

DIABASE: A granular igneous rock, dark gray to black, sometimes called dolerite.

DIAMOND MATCHING: (Quarter matching) A veneer panel matching pattern similar to book matching, except that the third and fourth panels are inverted over panels one and two.

DIAMOND SAWED: Finish produced by sawing with diamond-toothed saws (either circular or gang).

DIAPER: Any continuous pattern in brickwork, usually applied in a diamond or other diagonal patterns.

DIE: A covering layer of interior stone from wall to ceiling.

DIMENSIONAL STONE: Natural building stone that has been selected, trimmed, or cut to specified shapes and sizes. Final surface treatment, or finish is as specified.

DIORITE: Granular, crystallized igneous stone composed of feldspar and hornblende.

DOG'S TOOTH: A brick laid with itís corner projecting from the wall face.

DOGS AND CHAIN: Pair of steel hooks with rings attached into which chain is slung; vertical pull on chain draws hooks together in horizontal direction to grip stone blocks.

DOLLY POINTED: See picked.

DOLOMITE: A calcium magnesium carbonate; a crystalline variety of limestone, containing in excess of 40 percent of magnesium carbonate as the dolomite molecule.

DOLOMITIC LIMESTONE: A limestone rich in magnesium carbonate, frequently somewhat crystalline in character. It is found in ledge formations in a wide variety of color tones and textures. Generally speaking, its crushing and tensile strengths are greater than oolitic limestones, and its appearance shows greater variety in texture.

DOLOMITE MARBLE: A crystalline variety of limestone, containing in excess of 49% of magnesium carbonate as the dolomite molecule.

DOLOSTONE: A dolomitic limestone.

DOVETAIL ANCHOR: A splayed tenon that is shaped like a doveís tail, broader at its end than at its base, which fits into the recess of a corresponding mortise.

DOVETAIL MOLDING: A molding in which interlocked triangles are used.

DOWEL: A cylindrical metal pin used in aligning and strengthening joints of adjacent stone units, or to assist in anchoring stone units.

DOWELS: Straight metal bars or rods used to connect two sections of masonry or masonry to other materials.

DRAFT: The tooled strip or border of faced stone, also known as a margin.

DRAFTSMAN: One who translates and draws or prepares a design into drawings.

DRESSED/HAND DRESSED: The cutting of rough chunks of stone by hand to create a square or rectangular shape.A stone which is sold as dressed stone generally refers to stone ready for installation.

DRESSING: The shaping and squaring, sometimes called scabbling, of blocks for storage and shipment.

DRILL: To cut a cylindrical hole, or a tool used to drill a cylindrical hole.

DRIP: A recess cut into the underside of projecting stone to divert water and prevent it from running down the face of a wall or other surface of which it is a part.

DRIP MOLD: A molding shaped for drip.

DROVE: A masonís blunt chisel for facing stone.

DRUM: One of the cylindrical stone blocks of a column shaft.

DRY PACK: A mixture of Portland cement and fine aggregate, dampened, but not to the extent that it will flow. It is usually rammed or packed in a hole to secure a bar or anchor, but it is also packed under base plates.

DRY SEAM: Unhealed fracture that may be a plane of weakness.

DRY WALL: Dry wall is a stone that is constructed one stone upon the other without the use of any mortar. Generally used for retaining walls.

DUAL FINISH: Two finishes on one piece of stone, such as thermal and polished.

DURABILITY: The measure of the ability of dimension stone to endure and to maintain its essential and distinctive characteristics of strength, resistance to decay and moisture, and appearance.

DUTCHMAN: A small, matching piece of dimension stone that is cut, finished and attached with the tightest possible joint to a floor, wall, top, or other larger piece of stone to increase its length or width or to repair or replace a missing or damaged area. Dutchmen are usually affixed in the fabrication shop with epoxy or polyester resin.

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