Glossary of Terms

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FABRICATED: Dimensional stone manufactured and ready for installation.

FABRICATION: The work involved in transforming building stone from quarry blocks to cut or finished stone.This includes primary sawing into slabs. It may also include both hand and mechanical techniques such as sawing, drilling, grinding, honing, polishing, and carving.

FACADE: A face of a building, usually the front.

FACE: Refers to the exposed surface of stone on the structure. Or, a horizontal belt of vertical face, often used in combination with moldings.

FACE SHELL: The wall of a hollow masonry unit, on its front and back surface.

FACE SHELL BEDDING: Mortar applied only to the face shells of hollow masonry units.

FACING: Any material forming a part of a wall, used as a finished surface.Also, a wall in which the stone face and the back-up wall are of different materials.

FACTOR OF SAFETY: The factor by which the expected weight or stress is multiplied to indicate the surplus of strength or resistance provided for safety’s sake.

FALSE JOINT: A groove routed in a solid piece of stone to simulate a joint.

FASCIA: A horizontal band of vertical face, often used in combinations with moldings.

FAULT: A dislocation of stone strata that may interfere with natural underground drainage, or a break in the layers or bedding plane.

FEATHER EDGE: A sharp arris formed by beveling or cutting a piece of stone

FEATHER-EDGED COPING: Coping that slopes in only one direction (not ridged or gabled). In some areas, it implies slope towards rear of wall.

FELDSPAR: Any group of crystalline minerals, all silicates of aluminum with either potassium, sodium, calcium, or barium. An essential constituent of nearly all crystalline rocks.

FERRUNGINOUS: Limestone or quartz-based stone (sandstone) containing a high proportion of iron oxide.

FIELD: The expanse of wall between openings, corners, etc, principally composed of stretchers.

FIELD STONE: Loose blocks separated from ledges by natural processes and scattered through or upon the ground cover; applied also to similar transported materials, such as glacial boulders and cobblestones.

FIELDSTONE: A weathered stone found on top of the ground.

FILLET: Rebate, often used as a decorative feature with moldings.

FILLING: A trade expression used in the fabrication of marble to indicate the filling of natural voids with color-blended cements, shellac or synthetic resins and similar materials.

FILLER STRIP: Refers to a resilient material placed in the rear portion of a joint to function as a sealant stop.

FINES: The powder, dual, silt-size, and sand-size material resulting from processing (usually crush tog) rock.

FINISH: Final surface applied to the face of dimensional stone during fabrication.

FINISHER: Person or business that operates a plant or machinery for the fabrication of domestic and foreign stones for building and other purposes.

FINISH FLOOR: The exposed top member of a flooring assembly.

FIRE CLAY: A clay used for making brick that is highly resistant to heat without deforming.

FIRE RESISTANT MATERIAL: See noncombustible material

FIREPLACE: An opening on a hearth, served by a chimney flue, where an open fire may be laid.

FIREPROOFING: Any material or combination protecting structural members and increasing their fire resistance.

FIREPROOF: Relatively incombustible

FIXING: A term used in Europe to describe the installation of stone work.

FLAGSTONE: Thin slabs of stone used for flagging or paving walks, driveways, patios, etc, and is generally a fine-grained sandstone, bluestone, quartzite, or slate, but thin slabs of other stones may be used.

FLASHING: Manufacturing process to produce specific color tones in clay units by creating a reducing atmosphere in the kiln. Or, a thin impervious material placed in mortar joints and through air spaces in masonry to prevent water penetration and provide water drainage.Also, metal or other protective material used to cover joints, tops of walls, parapet walls, or angles, as of a roof.

FLEURI: The mottled effect obtained when certain marble varieties are sawn parallel to their natural bedding plane.

FLEURI CUT: Unique to the marble industry, it is cut parallel to the natural bedding plane.

FLINT: Dense, fine-grained, naturally occurring form of silica that fractures conchoidally.

FLOAT: A mason’s tool, a flat board with handle on one side, used for spreading and smoothing plaster or cement.

FLOAT COAT: The final mortar coat applied with a float over which the neat coat is applied.

FLOOR: The horizontal surface of a room or building upon which one stands or walks.Also, the area between two adjacent levels of a building.

FLOOR PLAN: The plan, or horizontal section, of a building.

FLOORING: Stone used as an interior pedestrian walking surface.

FLUSH: Descriptive of adjoining surfaces in the same plane.

FLUSH JOINT: A joint where the mortar or sealant is pressed flush with the stone face.

FLUTED: Stone having a regular series of concave grooves.

FLYING BUTTRESS: A buttress that includes a rampant arch to carry the inner thrust to the pier.

FOLIATION: The layered or banded structure of rock in which the mineral grains became re-aligned at right angles to a directional force that existed during metamorphism.

FOUR-CORNER FINISH: Coarse bush-hammered finish with same characteristics as 6-cut, but with markings not more than 7/32" apart.

FOUR-MAN BOULDERS: Rough stones under 750 pounds.

FOYER: A subordinate space between an entrance and the main interior to which it leads.

FREESTONE: A stone that may be cut freely in any direction without fracture or splitting.

FRIEZE: Flat member of the entablature occurring above the architrave and below the cornice.

FRITH STOOL: A stone seat near the altar of a church.

FRONT: The more important face of a building, or that containing its main entrance.

FROG: A depression in the bed surface of a brick, sometimes called a panel.

FULL MORTAR BEDDING: Mortar applied to the entire thickness of a masonry unit.

FURRING: The method of finishing the interior face of masonry wall to provide space for insulation, to prevent moisture transmittance, or to provide a smooth or plane surface for finishing.

FURROWING: The practice of striking a ‘V’ in a bed of mortar with the point of the trowel.

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