Glossary of Terms

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GABLE: The exterior triangular section of a wall extending upward from the level of the eaves to the apex.Also, a member resembling the triangular end of a roof.

GABBRO: An igneous granular stone composed chiefly of pyroxene, augite or diallage, and plagioclase.

GALLET: A stone chip or spall.

GANG SAW: A machine with multiple blades used to saw rough quarry block into slabs.Also known as a frame saw.

GANG SAWED: Description of the granular surface of stone resulting from gang sawing alone.

GANTRY SAW: A usually single diamond blade saw with a mobile rail and blade that can be repositioned along its tracks between cuts.

GARRETING: The insertion of small splinters of stone in the mortar joints before the mortar has firmly set.

GAUGED OR GAUGING: A grinding process to make all pieces of material to be used together the same thickness.

GLASS SEAM: Description of a narrow glass-like streak occurring in stone. It is a joint plane that has been re-cemented by deposition of translucent crystalline calcite in the crack and is usually structurally sound.

GLOSS: Luster or shininess, measured as light reflectance.

GNEISS: A metamorphic rock with a banded or coarsely foliated structure, often called "Trade Granite". Composed essentially of silicate minerals with interlocking and visibly granular texture in which the foliation is due primarily to alternating layers, regular or irregular, of contrasting mineralogic composition.

GRADE COURSE: Beginning course at the grade level, generally waterproofed with a dampcheck or damp course.

GRAIN: The easiest cleavage direction in a stone.Also the particles (crystals, sand grain, etc) in a stone.

GRANITE: A very hard, crystalline, igneous rock, gray to pink in color, composed of feldspar, quartz, and lesser amounts of dark ferromagnesium materials. Black "granites" are similar to true "granites" in structure and texture, but are composed of different minerals.

GRANULAR: Stones having a texture characterized by particles that are apparent to the unaided eye. For sedimentary rocks: particles less than 4 inches in diameter and approximately equal in size.

GRAVEL: Composed chiefly of quartz, but may contain granite, limestone, basalt, and other rocks.

GRAYWACKE: A grainy conglomerate stone composed of firmly cemented fragments of quartz.

GREEN MORTAR: Mortar that has set but not dried.

GREENSTONE: Includes stones that have been metamorphosed or otherwise altered that they have assumed a distinctive greenish color owing to the presence of one or more of the following minerals: chlorite, epidote, or actinolite.

GRIT FINISH: A smooth non-reflective finish primarily used on marble and limestone marble.

GROG: Crushed brick that is blended with clay to form new brick.

GROUP CLASSIFICATION FOR SOUNDNESS: Standard trade practice definitions setting forth extent of shop fabrication normally required for group A,B, C, and D marbles.

GROUT: A mixture of cement material and aggregate to which sufficient water is added to produce pouring consistency without segregation of the constituents.

GROUT LIFT: The height to which grout is placed in a cell, collar joint or cavity without stopping; an increment of the total grout pour.

GROUT POUR: The total height of a masonry wall to be grouted prior to the placement of additional masonry.A grout pour may consist of one or more grout lifts.

GROUT CORE MASONRY: Masonry construction made with hollow units in which all or specific cores are filled with grout.

GROUTED MASONRY: Masonry construction made with solid masonry in which the interior joints and voids are filled with grout.

GUIDE SPECIFICATION: A recommended specification for the furnishing and installation of building stone.

GUY: A rope or wire that, with others, prevents a post or derrick from having side sway.

GYPSUM: A hydrated calcium sulfate. It is formed naturally as the result of the reaction of sulfuric acid produced by decomposition of pyrite upon the calcium carbonate of shells existing in clay; a sedimentary rock.

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