Glossary of Terms

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RABBETT: A groove cut into the surface along an edge so as to receive another piece similarly cut.

RACKING: Stepping back successive courses of masonry.

RAKE: An angular cut on the face of stone.

RAKED JOINT: A mortar joint formed by removing the mortar a given depth from the face of the masonry.

RAMP: The concave bend of a handrail where a sharp change in level is required, as at the post of a stair landing.

RAMPANT: An arch or vault that springs from one level of support and rests at the other side on a higher level.

RANDOM: A stone pattern where joints are web-like.

RANDOM ASHLAR: Masonry of square or rectangular stones with neither vertical nor horizontal joints continuous and installed without patterns.

RANDOM MASONRY: That in which the course heights vary in size.

RANGE: A course of any thickness that is continued across the entire face.All range courses need not be of the same thickness.

RANGE OF COLOR: The extent of variation of color, shade, markings, texture, veining, and other characteristics of dimension stone, usually defined by using a number of samples or a mock-up.

REBATED KERF: An additional cut that countersinks a kerf from to the back edge of another piece of stone for the purpose of additional anchor clearance. It is not a gauged cut. If used for a bearing surface, must be shimmed to allow for tolerance in the cut.

RECEPTOR: Combined floor and curb used as the bottom of showers.

RECESS: A sinkage in a wall plane.

RECRYSTALLIZED LIMESTONE: A limestone in which a new pattern of crystallinity has pervasively replaced the crystal orientation in the original clastic particles, fossils, or fossil fragments, and interstitial cement.

REEDED: Reversed fluted.

REGLET: A narrow, flat molding of rectangular profile to receive and secure flashing.

REGRATING: Removing the surface of stone in place by some dressing method to clean by exposing fresh stone.

REINFORCEMENT: A fabrication technique often called "rodding"; refers to the strengthening of unsound marble and limestone by cementing aluminum or stainless steel rods into grooves or channels cut into the back of a stone unit.Another method of " reinforcement" is the lamination of fiberglass to the back of tile units.

RELIEF OR RELIEVE: Ornament in relief.The ornament of figure can be slightly, half or greatly projected.

RELIEVING ARCH: One built over a lintel, flat arch, or smaller arch to divert loads, thus relieving the lower member from excessive loading, also known as discharging or safety arch..

REPOINTING: Raking out, refilling, and finishing joints with new mortar.

REPRISE: Inside corner of a stone member with a profile other than a flat plane.

REREDOS: The screen behind an altar, usually richly treated in stone.

RESTORATION: Work performed, including cleaning, repair, and finishing, to return the stone to its original character, finish, and condition.

RETAINING WALLSTONE: Stones which have multiple widths and thicknesses, used as a self-supporting wall with no back up.

RETARDING AGENT: A chemical admixture to mortar or grout that slows setting or hardening.

RETEMPERING: To moisten mortar and re-mix after original mixing, to the proper consistency for use.

RETICULATED WORK: Stone surface hand dressed to show a netlike or vein-like raised pattern. Also, a wall built of square pieces set diagonally, with the joints showing a netlike pattern.

RETURN: The right angle turn of a wall, molding, or other horizontal projecting member.

RETURN HEAD: Stone facing with the finish appearing on both the face and the edge of the same stone; as on the corner of a building.

REVEAL: The depth of stone between its outer face and a window or door set in an opening; the reveal is at 90 degrees to the front face.

RIFT: The most pronounced direction of splitting or cleavage of a stone. Rift and grain may be obscure, as in some granites, but are important in both quarrying and processing stone.

RIPRAP: Irregular shaped stones used for facing bridge abutments and fills; stones thrown together without order to form a foundation, sustain walls, or minimize soil erosion.Also used for rustic stepping stones and patios.

RISE: Refers to the heights of stone, generally used in reference to veneer stone.

RISER: The vertical member between treads of a stair.

RISING DAMP: Ground water that travels upward through a masonry wall by means of natural capillary action.

RIVEN: Split along natural cleavage planes, describes surface finish.

ROCK: An integral part of the earth’s crust composed of an aggregate of grains of one or more minerals (‘stone’ is the commercial term applied to quarry products).

ROCK (PITCH) FACE: This is similar to split face, except that the face of the stone is pitched to a given line and plane, producing a bold appearance rather than the comparatively straight face obtained in split face.

ROCKED FINISH: An edge that is spalted from both sides, leaving a bubbled appearance.

RODDING: Reinforcement of a structurally unsound marble by cementing reinforcing rods into grooves or channels cut into the back of the slab.

ROMAN ARCH: Semi-circular arch with all stone pieces being wedge shaped.

ROSE WINDOW: A circular stone window fitted with carved tracery.

ROUGH SAWN: A surface finish accomplished by the gang sawing process.

ROUGHBACK: Outside cut-slab, having one side sawed and the other rough, from a block that has been gang sawed.

ROUGHING OUT: A preliminary stone cutting or carving process, removing the bulk of unwanted material.

ROWLOCK: A brick laid on its face with the end surface visible in the wall face. Frequently spelled rolock.

RUBBED FINISH: Mechanically rubbed for smoother finish; may have slight scratches.

RUBBLE: A product term applied to dimension stone used for building purposes, chiefly walls and foundations and consisting of irregularly shaped pieces, partly trimmed or squared, generally with one split or finished face, and selected and specified within a site range.

RUBBING STONE: Abrasive stone that is used to smooth the edges of stone tile.

RUSTIC: Generally local stone, that is roughly hand dressed, and intentionally laid with high relief in relatively modest structures or rural character.Also, a grade of building limestone, characterized by coarse texture.

RUSTICATED: Emphasized joints, recessed or beveled, which are cut or formed in stonework.

RUSTIFICATION: Recessing the margin of cut stone so that when placed together a channel is formed at each joint.

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