Glossary of Terms

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TABLET: A small flat slab or surface of stone especially one bearing one or intended to bear an inscription, carving or the like.

TALC: A soft mineral composed of hydrous magnesium silicate, major ingredient of soapstone.

TAMPED: Tapped or pushed down to fill a space or make level.

TEMPER: To moisten and mix clay, plaster, or mortar to the proper consistency.

TEMPLATE: A pattern for repetitive marking or fabricating operation; made from a hard, waterproof material.

TERRA COTTA: Low fired clay, either glazed or unglazed, used primarily in ornamental reliefs.

TERRAZZO: A type of concrete in which chips or pieces of stone, usually marble, are mixed with cement and are ground to a flat surface, exposing the chips which take a high polish.

TEXTURE: Three-dimensional surface enrichment independent of color; any finish other than a smooth finish.

TEXTURED FINISH: A rough surface finish that tends to subdue color and markings; obtained by bush hammering and machine chiseling.

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY: K-value; measure of heat-flow through a material or substance.

THERMAL FINISH: A rough non-reflective finish created with the use of intense heat flaming to exfoliate the surface of the stone and expose the actual grain. Large surfaces may have shadow lines caused by overlapping of the machine or torch.

THERMAL RESISTANCE: R-value; the tendency of a material to retard the flow of heat; the reciprocal of the co-efficient of heat transmission.

THIN BED: A mixture of portland cement with sand, and additives that improve water retention, used as a thin mortar for installing stone tile.

THICK BED MORTAR: A mortar setting bed over _" and up to 4" thick.The minimum required "thick bed thickness" is a function of application usage, installed material, and the supporting substrate.

THIN BED MORTAR: A mortar setting bed up to _" thick.

THIN BUILDING STONE: Generally stone with natural cleft front and back which is thin and light enough to adhere to a surface which special sticky mortar or " rich mud" has been applied.The pieces are generally the same thickness as flagging but smaller in surface area.The same item can also be used for flagging, caps, hearth tops, etc….

THIN STONE: Dimension units less than two inches thick.

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE: Value of airborne toxic materials that are to be used as guides in control of health hazards and present time weighed concentrations to which all workers may be exposed eight hours per day over extended periods of time without adverse effects.

THROAT: The under-cut of a projected molding to form a drip.

THROUGH STONE: Stone laid across entire thickness of a wall.

TIE: Any unit of material that connects masonry-to-masonry or other material.

TIGHT JOINT: Stone installed with a 1/32" joint.

TILE: A modular unit less than 5/8" thick.

TOLERANCE: Dimensional allowance made for the inability of men and machines to fabricate a product of exact dimensions.

TONGUE AND GROOVE: Applied to boards or plywood having a tongue formed on one edge and a groove on the other for tight jointing. Not recommended for stone tile sub-floor.

TOOLED: Dressed stone, having regular tool marks.

TOOLED FINISH: Customarily are four, six, or eight parallel concave grooves to the inch.

TOOLING: Compressing and shaping the face of a mortar joint with a special tool other than a trowel.

TOOTHING: Constructing the temporary end of a wall with the end stretcher of alternate courses projecting. Projecting units are toothers.

TRACERY: Ornamentation of panels, circular windows, window heads, etc. A curving mullion of a stone window, as in Gothic architecture.

TRANSFORMED SECTION: An assumed section of one material having the same elastic properties as the original section of two materials.

TRANSITION: The slow change from one distinct style to another distinct style following it.

TRANSLUCENCE: The light-emitting quality of certain marble varieties containing a crystal structure capable of transmitting light.

TRANSOM: Horizontal member subdividing a window opening.

TRAVERTINE: A variety of limestone which is a precipitant from cave or spring waters. Some varieties of travertine take a polish and have been marketed as travertine marble.

TRAVERTINE MARBLE: A variety of limestone regarded as a product of chemical precipitation from hot springs.Travertine is cellular with the cells usually concentrated in thin layers that display a stalactitic structure. Some that take a polish are sold as marble and may be classified as travertine marble under the class of "commercial marble".

TREAD: A flat stone used as the top walking surface on steps.

TRIM: Stone used as decorative items only, such as sills, coping, enframements, etc….with the facing of another material.

TRIMMER ARCH: A stone arch, usually a low-rise arch, used for supporting a fireplace hearth.

TUCKPOINTING: Pointing of irregularly shaped masonry units with mortar colored to match the units followed by placement of fine stripes of a contrasting colored mortar on top of the first mortar. Also used, incorrectly, for repointing.

TUFA: Calcareous deposit from saturated limy waters.

TUFF: Cemented volcanic ash; many varieties included.

TUMBLED MARBLE: A special finish for marble, limestone marble and limestone obtained by rotating pre-cut pieces in a mixer or other container.This rounds the edges and arrises.

TURNED WORK: In stone fabrication pieces with circular outline, as columns, balusters, and some bases and capitals. Generally cut on a lathe, although spheres and some other shapes may be cut by hand.

TURNTABLE: A platform flush with floor or tracks, capable of being rotated horizontally.

TWO-MAN BOULDERS: Rough stones under 400 pounds.

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